Hei whakamahi i tēnei rauemi
Whakamahia tēnei rauemi hei tīmatanga kōrero me ngā rangatahi e pā ana ki tō rātou mōtika kia whakautetia rātou i roto i te pā kūwhā, pērā tonu i a Tiki.
Kei te wharangi 53 o te pūrākau nei, kātahi anō ka mōhio te iwi o Tūtānekai kua moe rāua ko Hinemoa. He ohorere katoa nō te iwi – kua moe te pōriro i a te puhi! He hoa takatāpui hoki tõ Tūtānekai, arā, ko Tiki. Nō tana kitenga kua whiwhi whaiāipo a Tūtānekai, ka hēmanawa a Tiki. He ngākau whakaute nō Tūtānekai ki tana hoa takatāpui, ka whakaritea tana tuahine, a Tūpā, hei whaiāipo māna. Ka manawa reka a Tiki ki tā Tūtānekai i whakatakoto, ka pai mai anō a Tūpā, hēoti, ka moe rāua ko Tiki, ko Tūpā.
- Matapakitia tēnei tūāhua o te whakaute tangata i roto i te pā kūwhā i te wā o Tūtānekai rāua ko Tiki. Ahakoa he hoa tōkai, ahakoa he hoa tata rānei a Tiki nō Tūtānekai, kua hēmanawa a Tiki nā te mate kanehe atu a Tūtānekai i a Hinemoa.
- I ētahi wā, ka pērā te rangatahi i tā Tūtānekai, he whaiāipo tāna engari ka mate kanehe atu ki tētahi anō, ka māwhitiwhiti rānei mai tētahi ki tētahi, ko te onioni te take.
- Heoi, me whai whakaaro pea ia ki te tangata kua ākiritia, pērā i a Tiki, me te mana o te tangata i takahia. Kia ngākau whakaute koe ki te mana o te tangata e pā kūwhātia ai e koe koe, mā reira hoki koe whai mana anō ai.
- Hei whakaarotanga anō mā ngā rangatahi, he mea nui, he haepapa nui tēnei mea te kuhu ki te piringa ai me tētahi atu, me ngā āhuatanga e kōmingo ai i ngā kare ā-roto. Ki te kore koe e tino rite mō tērā momo kohuki, mō ērā momo piki me ngā heke, he pai ake pea kia whakatōmuri i tāu kuhunga ki te pā kūwhā. Kei a koe te mana!
He mana tō te tangata. He ngākau whakaute ki te tangata e pā kūwhātia ai e koe, he whakatipu anō i tōu ake mana. Kei a koe te mana!
Ko tēnei kōrero nei, nā Wiremu Maihi Te Rangikāheke o Ngāti Rangiwēwehi i whakairo, nō te tau 1849. Ko Hinemoa he rangatira, he wahine whakapuhi hoki nā tōna iwi. Ko Tūtānekai, he tāne hūmārie, he toki ki te whakatangi pūoro. Kāore ngā mātua o Hinemoa i whakaae ki a Tūtānekai hei tāne māna, i te mea he pōriro – horekau ia ‘i aitia ki runga i te takapau wharanui’. E ai ki te pūrākau nei, ‘He hoa takatāpui a Tiki nō Tūtānekai i tō rāua ohinga ake’ (mai i tō rāua taiohinga). Kei te papakupu o Williams ka hoatu te whakamārama o ērā kupu, te ‘hoa takatāpui’ hei ‘intimate friend’ (tirohia te Puna Kupu i raro nei). Ki te tātari i te tikanga o tērā kupu ‘intimate’ – me te mahara anō hoki he rerekē te whakamārama o nāianei i tō te ao o Tūtānekai mā – tērā pea he hoa tino tata, he hoa pūmau a Tiki nō Tūtānekai; tērā rānei he makau kē, he hoa tōkai kē nō Tūtānekai. Ko te mea nui, he ngākau whakaute nō Tūtānekai ki tōna hoa takatāpui.
He Puna Kupu
|ākiri||to reject, discard|
|(hoa) takatāpui||The online Māori Dictionary defines ‘takatāpui’ (noun) as a close or intimate friend of the same gender. Pioneering research work by Ngahuia Te Awekotuku and others from 1985 onwards, concerned with decoding and reinterpreting the depiction of early Māori sexuality in carvings, mōteatea and pūrākau (stories), as well as the early European accounts of Māori society, affirms the existence of diverse sexualities in the pre-colonial Māori world, and reclaims the term ‘takatāpui’ to mean ‘intimate friends of the same sex.’ Today, the term ‘takatāpui’ is claimed by some (but not all) Māori as an all-embracing term that includes but is not limited to whakawahine, tangata ira wahine, whakatāne, tangata ira tāne (trans man), lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer and intersex (Māori LGBTQI).|
|hoa tōkai||sexual partner|
|‘i aitia ki runga i te takapau wharanui’||This is said of a child who is conceived on a ‘wide woven mat’, i.e. within a communally sanctioned union. Tūtānekai was conceived outside of the sanctioned union between his mother Rangiuru and her partner Whakaue-kaipapa, when Rangiuru, herself a woman of high rank, had a brief sexual relationship with the esteemed chief, Tūwharetoa.|
|kohuki||anguish, stress, distress|
|kōmingo||to be agitated (thoughts agitated by strong emotions)|
|mana||Every Māori person is born with an increment of mana as one aspect of the spiritual attributes they inherit from their parents and grandparents. Mana is closely related to personal tapu (see ‘tapu’, below). Regardless of the degree you are born with, mana can be built up through doing good works in the community that uplift the mana of the collective. Conversely, mana can be diminished through thoughtless, dishonest or destructive actions. Mana is the creative and dynamic force that motivates an individual to do their best; maybe even do better than others!|
|manawareka||attraction; manawareka mārika – strongly attracted to|
|matua whakaangi||a term that means something similar to a step-father|
|moe(a)||to have sex with |
In translating pūrākau, narratives, whakapapa, etc. into English, ‘moe’ is often rendered as ‘marry’, but the concept of marriage is rooted in western/ Pākehā ideology and was not part of Māori cultural tradition. The customary Māori practice of cohabitation between partners was sometimes referred to as ‘moe māori’. Particularly among the rangatira class, this form of cohabitation must be sanctioned by the whānau and/or hapū involved. Moe māori was still in common usage as recently as the 1950s, although the introduction of the Marriage Act (1908) meant that a customary union had to be formalised as a marriage, i.e. performed by a minister of religion, to be recognised as legal. Under Pākehā law, this was important to one’s ability to make claims to land and inheritance. When the Māori Purposes Act was introduced in in 1951, Māori couples had to marry according to European customs to be eligible for the Family Benefit, and to ensure their children were not classified as ‘illegitimate’.
|pā kūwhā||sexual activity|
|piringa ai||sexual relationship|
|pōriro||Someone who is born outside of a communally sanctioned relationship. Tūtānekai was conceived when his mother Rangiuru had a sexual liaison with Tūwharetoa while separated from her sanctioned partner, Whakaue-kaipapa. Rangiuru later had two more children with Whakaue, who accepted Tūtānekai as a son.|
|puhi||a woman of high rank who is set aside for a political marriage, i.e. she can not have a sexual relationship with anyone without the approval of her tribe|
|tapu||Every Māori person is born with personal tapu. Personal tapu can be built up, through doing good works that are approved by the people/iwi. Protection of the self is closely linked to tapu and the attribute of mana (see ‘mana’, above). Mana and tapu are closely related and one affects the other. When one’s tapu is in a steady state, the person is well, both physically and psychologically. Well-being occurs when the self is in a state of balance, when personal tapu is safe and not under threat. Things like gossip, public humiliation and personal abuse can harm one’s personal tapu.|
|tōkai||to copulate, have sexual intercourse|
|whaiāipo||lover, sexual partner; boyfriend/girlfriend (modern)|
|whakapuhi||to be made a puhi (see ‘puhi’, above)|
|whakatōmuri||to hold back, delay|
Chris & Tupoutahi Winitana (Hosts). (Sunday 13 September 2015). What is the gender role of our transgender uri on the marae? This week we discuss the issue with transgender Hira Huata and takatāpui Levi Bristow. In Hone Edwards (Producer), Paepae: Series 1 Episode 25. Retrieved from http://www.maoritelevision.com/tv/shows/paepae
Cook, M. (2017). Marriage and partnering: Marriage in traditional Māori society. Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/marriage-and-partnering/page-1
Hutchings, J., & Aspin, C. (Eds.). (2007). Sexuality & the stories of Indigenous people. Wellington, NZ: Huia Publishers.
Kerekere, E. (2017). Takatāpui: Part of the whānau. Auckland, NZ: Rainbow Youth Inc. & Tīwhanawhana Trust. Retrieved from https://takatapui.nz/takatapui-part-of-the-whanau
Mead, H. M. M. (2003). Tikanga Māori: Living by Māori values. Wellington, NZ: Huia Publishers.
Te Awekotuku, Ng. (2005). He reka anō: Same sex lust and loving in the ancient Māori world. In A. J. Laurie & J. Evans (Eds.), Outlines, lesbian and gay histories of Aotearoa. Wellington, NZ: Lesbian and Gay Archives of New Zealand.
Te Rangikāheke, W. M. (1997). Ko Hinemoa. In B. Biggs (ed.), He whiriwhiringa: Selected readings in Māori (pp. 45-54). Auckland, NZ: Auckland University Press.
Tupara, H. (2017). Te whānau tamariki: Traditional practices – pregnancy and birth. Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. https://teara.govt.nz/en/te-whanau-tamariki-pregnancy-and-birth/page-2
Wikaira, M. (2017). Ngāti Tūwharetoa – Tūwharetoa. Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. https://teara.govt.nz/en/ngati-tuwharetoa/page-3[/glossary_exclude]